How to Calculate Fabrics for King Headboards

Make your own personal one-of-a-kind headboard or recover your present one to add custom detail to your bedroom layout. Understanding how to calculate the fabric ensures that you get enough material, but not too much.

Step To Be Sure

Assess the width of the headboard as the space from the left to the right, add twice the thickness of the headboard plus 10 inches. The result is that the essential cut width of the fabric piece you require for your headboard. Assess the length of the headboard from the top to the bottom, add twice the thickness plus 10 inches to the result of the length of the piece of fabric required. Divide the essential cut width of the fabric by the actual width of the fabric and around the number. Multiply this by the required cut length of the fabric. Add 10 percent to the end result for pattern matching, and divide the last number by 36 to the number of yards of fabric required. For instance, if the cut length needed is 58 inches, the material is 54 inches wide, and the essential cut width of material is 92, the calculation is 92 split by 54 — which, rounded up, is 2 two times 58 is 116, plus 10 percent equals 127. Dividing this by 36 equals 3.6 or 3 5/8 lawns.

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Are Buddleia Edible?

The Buddleia genus includes heaps of butterfly bush stones, which are characterized by dramatic sprays of sweet-smelling, tube-shaped flowers. The classic butterfly bush has spiky purple blossoms, but other species endure flowers in pink or red. The typical butterfly bush grows well in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 6 to 9. They can help an edible garden as pollinators but don’t directly contribute nutrition for humans.

Edibility Options

As a group, butterfly bushes must be considered off limits as a food supply. They are not listed as common or emergency food sources at these databases as Purdue University’s Famine Foods project. Another online database, Plants for a Future, lists only one Buddleia species since somewhat creamy — an Asian species known as bai bei feng (Buddleia asiatica), which will be hardy in USDA zones 8 to 10. PFAF notes that the bush’s roots are used to make a fermented drink.

Toxicity Questions

Plants of this Buddleia genus are considered nontoxic if accidentally ingested by individuals, in accordance with California Poison Control’s website. On the other hand, the University of Florida’s Cooperative Extension Service singles out Buddleia asiatica as poisonous — even though it was the sole Buddleia species listed as edible on the PFAF website. Given these mixed messages, then it is best to play it safe and prevent eating butterfly bush roots, leaves, flowers and seeds.

Other Uses

As you should not eat parts of the butterfly bush, the bush has its own place in the edible food garden. The shrub comes by its common name frankly, because its blossoms are famous for their ability to attract pollinating butterflies. While bees are the most efficient pollinators in regards to edible plants, butterflies can also be invaluable, especially in fruit and seed production. A bunch of butterfly bushes is a matching tall boundary close vegetable plots, herb gardens and orchards.

Alternative Edibles

If limited space makes it essential to set up an ornamental plant that is also creamy, choices to butterfly bush abound. Shrubs that produce edible berries are just one solution. For an especially versatile shrub, think about the elderberry (Sambucus canadensis), which rises in USDA zones 3 to 9 and bears showy, fragrant flowers you’ll be able to dip in batter and fry like pancakes, in addition to berries for jams and syrups. For plants that mimic the butterfly bush’s arching spikes of purple-blue flowers, seem to herbs using creamy flowers. These contain common hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis), grown in USDA zones 4 to 9; anise hyssop (Agastache foeniculum), hardy in USDA zones 4 to 8; and lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), acceptable for USDA zones 5 to 8.

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The way to Make Homemade Rug Deodorizer

Carpet and rugs absorb scents like cigarette smoke, cooking odors and pet smells. Supermarkets and pharmacies offer carpet deodorizers to sprinkle carpets before you vacuum, but if you would like to conserve money or favor a more natural scent, make your own. Whip up a batch and enjoy the fresh scent of essential oils — or no odor at all — rather than synthetic chemicals.

Unscented Borax Deodorizer

Pour 1 cup of borax and 2 cups of cornmeal into a mixing bowl. Stir the ingredients with a wooden spoon until they are thoroughly blended.

Scoop the components into an empty glass Parmesan-cheese shaker and screw the lid on tightly.

Sprinkle the carpet with a mild, even layer of deodorizer. Leave it on for at least 30 minutes prior to running.

Scented Baking-Soda Deodorizer

Pour 1 cup baking soda and 1/2 cup cornstarch into a mixing bowl.

Add three to five drops of the favourite deodorizing essential oil, such as citrus, lavender or tea tree.

Stir the ingredients with a wooden spoon until they are thoroughly blended.

Scoop the components into an empty glass Parmesan-cheese shaker and screw the lid on tightly.

Sprinkle the carpet with a mild, even layer of deodorizer. Leave it on for at least 30 minutes prior to running.

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How to Compare Hydronic Wood Fired Boilers

Hydronic wood-fired boilers provide hot water for heating systems and plumbing fixtures throughout the house. These units sit in outdoor structures which resemble little metal sheds and may burn traditional firewood or wood pellets for fuel. Just like any dwelling heating system, hydronic boilers represent a major investment. While shopping for hydronic wood boilers, consider things such as heat output, fuel requirements and how each unit will likely impact the environment to pick the ideal unit for your home.

Find the Right Size

Manufacturing companies frequently rate hydronic wood boilers based on how many square feet of living space they are designed to heat. When comparing these units, begin by estimating the total square footage of your residence. Add 25 percent for this figure when you plan to utilize your boiler to heat more than 1 building, such as the house and the garage. Add another 500 square foot if you plan on using your unit to heat water for your home. Finally, keep in mind that nearly all of these units have been sized for rooms using 8-foot ceilings. If your ceilings are 10 feet tall, then add another 25 percent for your square footage. Once you’ve calculated how many square feet you need to heat based on these recommendations, then choose a unit designed to heat a space of this size or larger.

Compare Fuel Types

Not all of wood-fired hydronic boilers are designed to burn a single type of wood. Some are constructed to handle traditional logs or firewood while others are built to burn only wood pellets. Prior to making a purchase, consider if you’ve got a ready supply of these fuels in your town. Compare prices of every fuel type, and consider that the work involved in getting each. For instance, using firewood in a boiler may require you to cut and stack the wood or to load the unit once a day or more. Using pellets may require normal deliveries, loading and storage. Weigh the costs and time involved for all these options to help narrow your selection.

Consider Smoke and Emissions

1 common complaint about hydronic wood-fired boilers relates to this thick smoke that they emit. Homeowners as well as neighbors and those residing in nearby can complain about the health consequences of this smoke. To minimize contamination, pick a boiler certified under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Burn Wise application. Units certified under this program contain a white label and will burn up to 90 percent cleaner than noncertified units. You may get a better idea of pollutant rates among both certified and noncertified units by checking the emissions rate, measured in grams per hour. Hydronic boilers certified under the Burn Wise program range from a low of 0.7 grams per hour to a high of 10.7 grams per hour as of January 2013. Refer to the specifications for each version to evaluate this info. If you decide not to spring for a clean-burning EPA-certified boiler, look for features which can help lessen the effect of smoke. The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources recommends choosing a unit using a smokestack that’s 15 feet high or smaller so that smoke passes over the roofs of neighbors. Wisconsin DNR also suggests installing your hydronic wood boiler 300 to 500 feet away from any neighboring residences.

Assess Ease of Maintenance

The ashes created by wood-fired boilers must be removed regularly to ensure efficient operation. Maximize safety and convenience using a unit featuring a built-in ash removal door or drawer for easy access. Units without this feature can be more likely to cause burns and need more effort to maintain. You will also need to put the fire out every time you remove the ashes, then relight it once you’re done keeping the unit.

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Renters Rights on Carpets & Painting

A fresh paint job and new carpeting may be all a dingy living room or dining room needs to make it more hospitable. If you are leasing, however, it is usually around the landlord to make those types of improvements. States like California require landlords to maintain the premises habitable, and in those conditions you may have the ability to deduct the improvements in the rent if, with no residing on the premises is dangerous.

Responsibility for Repairs

Before you move into a rental unit, an implied warranty of habitability ensures it does not have any health or physical hazards, such as loose floorboards, gas escapes or undisposed waste. Throughout your tenancy, the implied warranty requires the landlord to fix any conditions which become hazardous. By signing a rental agreement, you also agree to keep the property clean and in livable condition and to fix any damage which results in the negligent use of the property. The conditions of this shared responsibility are spelled out in the rental agreement, and you normally must provide a damage deposit.

Hazardous Conditions

Among the conditions that may leave a rental unit uninhabitable, and for which the landlord is usually responsible, are electric malfunctions, large pipes escapes and ineffective safety gear, like loose stair handrails. These circumstances arguably also include lead-based paint and mold. Units older than around 50 years are most likely to get lead paint on the walls, and whether the paint is peeling off, it could be ingested by anybody living there. The toxicity of lead-based paint is well recognized. Mold doesn’t affect everyone in exactly the exact same manner, but it can lead to adverse reactions in people that are sensitive to it, and for many people, it constitutes a health hazard.

Your Options as a Tenant

Once you’ve determined that the older paint job or the moldy carpeting are toxic, it’s within your rights to get hold of the landlord and demand that he fix the circumstance. If you can not make contact, the landlord doesn’t answer or he refuses your demand, the laws of several states, such as California, permit you to perform the repairs yourself and pay for them in the rent, so long as the repairs cost less than one month’s rent. You have the right to abandon the premises and quit paying rent if the repairs are more expensive than that. Both these remedies assume you’ve given the landlord reasonable time to act in your own demands.


A landlord is not required to maintain a unit in aesthetically pleasing condition, so if you want him to cover for new paint and carpeting, you should have positive evidence that the existing conditions represent a health hazard, and you must notify him of the fact in writing. If you opt for this adversarial route, then you may wind up in court, and any damage to the property which has resulted from the use of it may count against youpersonally. It’s better to negotiate in more positive terms, explaining the problem and providing solutions to help offset the cost. If it is an issue of aesthetics, however, and the landlord simply doesn’t want to alter the paint or carpets, you are out of luck.

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How Often Do Lime Trees Bear Fruit?

There are two varieties of true limes, the Mexican lime (Citrus aurantifolia), sometimes called the Key lime, and the bigger, less popular Tahiti lime (Citrus latifolia). In addition, you will find just two citrus fruits commonly called limes which are botanically different. Even though limes can be grown in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 10 and 11, they need to be implanted in places protected from the wind and cold in zone 10.

Mexican Lime

There are just a only a few cultivars of the Mexican algae, the most commonly known lime and the one most frequently found in supermarkets. The Mexican lime tree rises in 6 1/2 to 13 feet tall; it enjoys moist, warm climates and yields smooth, green limes which are 1 to 2 inches in diameter. The Mexican lime is greatly grown from the Florida Keys and could be grown along parts of the Gulf Coast and in secure places in California. The tree grows limes year-round but with heavier yields during two major seasons, in May and June and November and December.

Tahiti Lime

The Tahiti lime is much less widely known or used as the Mexican lime. At 15 to 20 feet high, the Tahiti lime tree is far bigger than the Mexican lime, and yields bigger pale yellow limes 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 inches wide and 2 to 3 inches high which have greenish yellow pulp. The Tahiti lime can withstand more cold compared to the Mexican lime. Approximately 70 percent of all Tahiti limes mature throughout its peak production time, from May to September with the heaviest crop from July to September.

Rangpur Lime

The Rangpur lime (Citrus x limonia), not a legitimate lime, is thought to be a hybrid between the lemon (C. limon) and the mandarin orange (C. reticulate.) It rises from 15 to 20 feet high and yields reddish-orange vegetables which taste like limes. The fruits peel easily and split into bright orange sections with greenish seeds. Rangpur trees yield rich fruit from November through the winter. They can be grown in USDA plant hardiness zones 8 through 11.

Kaffir Lime

The Kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix) is a dwarf citrus tree which grows up to 5 feet tall. It is grown for its shiny, aromatic leaves, not its sour, wrinkled fruits which are not true limes. The leaves are a favorite season in southeast Asian cuisine, particularly Thailand, even though the rind of its fruit is sometime ground as a seasoning. The leaves for which it’s grown may be removed any time of year. Unlike true limes, the Kaffir lime is much more cold hardy than true limes and may be grown in USDA plant hardiness zones 9b and warmer.

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The way to Fix Rotting Wood in a Skylight

Rotting wood is common on almost any fixture that’s open to the components. Skylights are especially prone to this due to their proximity to glass which can leak humidity, or the deteriorating effects of sunlight. You do not have to tear everything out and start over. You can repair decay in the origin and prolong the life of skylight trim or framework with powdered wax adhesive.

Clean It

If the timber has deteriorated into little fibers or splinters, the damaged area will have to be eliminated before beginning your repair job. If it looks really terrible, it’s a sure bet that the old finish is mostly gone, too. Use a wire brush to scrub and scrape off any remaining finish, loose fibers or splinters. Ensure to use the brush with power. If anything is loose, then scrub it off until you get down to solid timber. When you’ve got long splinters which are still joined at one end, leave those in place as pulling them loose may cause more harm. You can glue those.

Glue It

Mix the powdered leaf adhesive with water based on the manufacturer’s directions. Powdered resign glue employs a chemical reaction to dry as tough as tough as glass. It’s also colored brown to conceal and match the timber. It sinks into open pores where it hardens and also fills empty spaces. Mix the glue for a couple minutes until it becomes the consistency of thick, heavy syrup. Use a putty knife to smear and drive the glue to the rotten timber. Smear it on heavily. The glue will get thicker as you use it, therefore it won’t run off. Ensure to cover each one of the rotten timber using the glue. For those who have extended splinters that won’t remain down, then use masking tape to carry them into the glue. Wait overnight for the glue to dry.

Sand It

Use a glue scraper to remove any residual glue. There will be hardened globs and drips of glue. Scrape them off flush with the skylight. Glue scrapers are sharp and will cut the hardened surplus off smoothly. Run the scraper down the sides and face of the skylight to cut and shape off the accumulation. When all of glue is scraped, use a 100-grit sandpaper attached to your hand block to keep on sanding the glue to match the profile of their timber. Switch to a folded piece of sandpaper to finish sanding with additional detail.

Finish It

Good protection will be needed to preserve and finish the job. If you use varnish, lacquer, polyurethane or paint, then you’ll have the same issue again in a few decades when it deteriorates. But if you utilize permeable stain, it is possible to expect the skylight to continue longer since oil-based products penetrate into the pores of the timber where they harden to guard from the inside out. Liberally employ olive oil stain to the wood using a soft cloth. Allow it to soak for 15 minutes, then rub it off. Apply another coat of Danish oil every three times for a week. After that, apply the oil to the skylight after every six months to get permanent protection. For an added luster, you can apply paste wax to the wood.

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The way to Retouch Stained Molding

Moldings, especially across the ground, around windows or on the bottoms of door jambs can observe some real abuse from shoes, vacuum cleaners and pets. This type of damage is localized in small areas and can be repaired without sanding off the finish. There are a couple of commonly used methods employed by professionals and homeowners alike to touch-up stained molding that do not involve sanding. It only takes moments to repair the most common issues.

Clean any loose fibers or splinters in the scratch, gouge, abrasion or damaged area with the hint of a utility knife. Blow the region clean with air in the cheeks.

Rub a color-matched putty crayon over scrapes, gouges and seams hard enough to scrape off the end of the crayon flat. Immediately rub off the crayon residue using a soft, dry cloth until shiny and smooth.

Color small abrasions or light scratches in the lacquer or varnish using a cotton swab dipped in acrylic stain that matches the existing stain. Allow the stain to stay on the surface for 3 minutes. Wipe it off using a soft cotton cloth. If the scratch is lighter in color than the existing stain and it is still possible to see it, apply another program of stain, then wait three minutes and wipe it off. If you can still find the scratch, then use the putty crayon.

Color hairline scratches or stains using a color-matched stain marker. This kind of marker works nicely as borders and at straight-line cracks that aren’t severe. Use stain markers once the harm is upwards higher or even above your head.

Spray a fine coat of aerosol lacquer onto abrasions on the finish. This can appear to be a scuff mark that will not go away, or possibly a sanded location. Gently spray above the abrasion holding the can about 10 inches in the scratch. Cover it gently with lacquer. It is OK if the lacquer overlaps the hurt. Enable the lacquer to dry for 15 minutes.

Rub the lacquered area hard. Use a bit of denim with authority to vigorously rub off all the lacquer particles. Also known as burnishing, you can also rub very light scratches using denim without lacquer. Rub hard using a circular motion until the finish is warm to the touch and gleams with a new-looking glow.

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Tips on Cleaning Kerosene From Carpets

Kerosene leaves more than just an oily stain when spilled on carpet. In addition to removing a possible stain in the kerosene, you will have to deal with the odor kerosene leaves behind. Massive quantities of kerosene can signify the end of a carpet; however, small quantities, like drips in a kerosene lamp, which can be readily eliminated. Several household cleaners will be convenient. In addition, airing out the place naturally will get your carpet back to normal.

Open windows to permit fresh air and ventilation; remove or remove the padding beneath the carpet if it’s filled with kerosene.

Blot the affected area thoroughly with white, absorbent towels. Continue blotting until fluid stops appearing on the towel.

Clean the affected area with a clean towel dipped in an oil-fighting detergent mixture. You can mix your own with a 1/4 teaspoon of liquid dish detergent in a quart of warm water. Continue to blot after every round of cleaning to pull on the kerosene out of the carpeting.

Wash the affected area with clean water in a spray bottle. Blot the rinse water with dry towels. Allow to dry.

Sprinkle a generous amount of baking soda to the affected area to absorb remaining odor. Allow it to sit for many hours or days depending on the severity of the odor. Then vacuum the used baking soda. Repeat as necessary.

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How to Refinish Micro Bevel Flooring

Even though they are all milled identically, flooring boards often have variants in depth that become evident after setup. You can level bare boards using floor sanding gear as part of this setup, but you will need a different strategy once the boards are prefinished. One approach will be to mill the boards with beveled edges so the depth variations are not as noticeable. All these micro-bevels collect dirt and make issues once the time arrives to refinish the floor.

Problems with Micro-Beveled Floors

The micro-bevels on prefinished floors boards create valleys between pairs of boards which quickly collect dirt. The dirt discolors the borders of the boards, particularly in the event that you wax over it, and the overall look of the floor suffers as a result. Water may also gather from the valleys once you mop the floor, and if you wait there, then it can result in problems associated with warping, like curling and separation of their borders. You can’t always correct these problems by refinishing unless you are ready to sand enough off the boards to erase the bevels.

Cleaning the Bevels During Refinishing

If your micro-beveled floor simply wants a new end, but is in good shape, you can sand it as you would sand any additional hardwood floor. Now you will need an additional procedure to clean out the valleys between boards, however. After making the final move with the drum sander and edger, vacuum all of the dust from between boards and remove the finish from the edges of the boards. The best approach to do this is with a pull-scraper, drawing it along either side of each groove and then vacuuming once more to remove the scrapings.

Staining and Finishing

Staining a micro-beveled floor is not much different from staining every other, except that you need more services to get the stain into all of the grooves. It can help to apply the stain with a paintbrush and to paint in the direction of the flux. In order to avoid loading finish into the flux, where it may collect dirt and dry unevenly, you should apply it with a pad in thinner layers than you would use for a floor without bevels and use a paintbrush to brush inside the flux. The process is a bit more painstaking, but the flux will be evenly coated.


The finish coat on prefinished flooring is durable, and by the time it wears out, the floors boards are usually in poor condition. To properly repair them, you may need to sand as much as 1/8 inch from the surfaces. That may wear down the bevels enough to the stage where sanding a bit more to fully erase them will be a better option than leaving them as they are. This aggressive approach won’t work if the boards are engineered, because you’ll wear through the veneer. Inspect the cross-sections of their boards in a door before beginning. When there is a veneer, you will have the ability to see it.

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